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STD Kundansir

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Update time: 2024-01-10 10:19:53
Creation time: 2024-01-10 08:59:49
Description

Cattle Health Monitoring Device

Features: Respiration, Rumination, Temperature, Movement (Daily activity), atmosphere data

Sensors used: MPU9250, Flex Sensor, ADXL345, BMP280
 
MPU9250:

 

The MPU-9250 is a sensor commonly used for measuring motion, orientation, and magnetic fields, while cattle rumination refers to the process by which cows regurgitate and re-chew their food for better digestion.
The MPU-9250 is a sensor module that combines three important sensors: an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and a magnetometer. These sensors allow the module to measure motion, rotation, and magnetic fields in three-dimensional space. The accelerometer measures linear acceleration, the gyroscope measures angular velocity, and the magnetometer measures the strength and direction of the magnetic field.

The MPU-9250 is commonly used in various applications such as robotics, drones, virtual reality systems, and motion tracking due to its ability to provide accurate and real-time data about an object's orientation and movement.

The MPU-9250 is an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that can be used to measure the acceleration, rotation, and magnetic field of an object. This data can be used to track the movement of cattle, including their rumination behaviour.

Rumination is the process by which cattle regurgitate food from their stomach and chew it again. This helps them to extract more nutrients from the food. When cattle ruminate, they make a distinctive chewing motion that can be detected by the MPU-9250.

The MPU-9250 can be used to detect rumination in two ways. The first way is to use the accelerometer to measure the acceleration of the cattle's head. When cattle ruminate, their head moves in a rhythmic pattern. The accelerometer can be used to detect this pattern and identify rumination events.

The second way to detect rumination with the MPU-9250 is to use the magnetometer. The magnetometer measures the magnetic field around the cattle. When cattle ruminate, they change the position of their head relative to the magnetic field. This change in position can be detected by the magnetometer and used to identify rumination events.

The MPU-9250 is a powerful tool that can be used to track the movement and rumination behaviour of cattle. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

Flex Sensor:

 

 A flex sensor is a type of sensor that measures the amount of bending or flexing that occurs in a material. This can be used to measure the respiratory rate of cattle by attaching the flex sensor to the cattle's chest.

When the cattle breathe in, the chest expands and the flex sensor bends. When the cattle breathe out, the chest contracts and the flex sensor straighten. The amount of bending of the flex sensor is proportional to the respiratory rate of the cattle.

The flex sensor can be connected to an electronic circuit that measures the amount of bending and converts it into a digital signal. This signal can then be used to calculate the respiratory rate of the cattle.

The respiratory rate of a healthy cattle is typically between 26 and 50 breaths per minute. A higher respiratory rate can indicate respiratory distress or illness. A lower respiratory rate can indicate sedation or hypothermia.

The use of flex sensors to measure the respiratory rate of cattle is a non-invasive and accurate method. It can be used to monitor the respiratory health of cattle in real time. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

The flex sensor is attached to the cattle's chest with adhesive tape. The sensor is connected to an electronic circuit that measures the amount of bending and converts it into a digital signal. The signal is then displayed on a computer screen.

The respiratory rate of the cattle is calculated by counting the number of times the flex sensor bends in a given period of time. The respiratory rate is typically displayed in breaths per minute.

The use of flex sensors to measure the respiratory rate of cattle is a valuable tool for animal health monitoring. It is a non-invasive and accurate method that can be used to monitor the respiratory health of cattle in real time. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

 

 

 

ADXL345:

 

The ADXL345 is an accelerometer sensor that can be used to measure the acceleration of an object in three axes. This data can be used to track the movement of cattle and identify their daily activities.

The ADXL345 can be used to detect the following daily activities of cattle:

Resting: When cattle are resting, they typically have a low level of acceleration. The ADXL345 can be used to detect these periods of low acceleration and identify them as resting periods.

Eating: When cattle are eating, they typically have a higher level of acceleration. The ADXL345 can be used to detect these periods of high acceleration and identify them as eating periods.

Drinking: When cattle are drinking, they typically have a lower level of acceleration than when they are eating. The ADXL345 can be used to detect these periods of low acceleration and identify them as drinking periods.

Walking: When cattle are walking, they typically have a moderate level of acceleration. The ADXL345 can be used to detect these periods of moderate acceleration and identify them as walking periods.

Running: When cattle are running, they typically have a high level of acceleration. The ADXL345 can be used to detect these periods of high acceleration and identify them as running periods.

The data from the ADXL345 can be used to track the daily activity of cattle and identify any patterns or changes in behaviour. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.
The ADXL345 is attached to the back of the cattle with adhesive tape. The sensor is connected to a data logger that records the acceleration data in real time.

The data logger can be programmed to identify different types of activity, such as resting, eating, drinking, walking, and running. The data logger can then output the data to a computer or mobile device for analysis.

The analysis of the data can be used to track the daily activity of the cattle and identify any patterns or changes in behaviour. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

For example, if the data shows that cattle is spending more time resting than usual, this could be a sign of illness. The farmer can then take steps to investigate the illness and treat the cattle accordingly.

 

The use of the ADXL345 to track the daily activity of cattle is a valuable tool for animal health monitoring. It is a non-invasive and accurate method that can be used to monitor the activity of cattle in real time. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

 

BMP280:

 

The BMP280 is a digital pressure sensor that can also be used to measure temperature and humidity. This data can be used to monitor the environment in which cattle are kept and identify any potential health risks.

The BMP280 uses a capacitive sensor to measure the pressure of the air. The pressure of the air is proportional to the temperature and humidity of the air. By measuring the pressure, the BMP280 can also estimate the temperature and humidity of the air.

The BMP280 can be used to measure the following environmental conditions:

Temperature: The BMP280 can measure the temperature of the air with an accuracy of ±1.0°C. This information can be used to ensure that the cattle are kept in a comfortable environment.

Humidity: The BMP280 can measure the humidity of the air with an accuracy of ±3% RH. This information can be used to prevent the cattle from becoming dehydrated or developing respiratory problems.

Pressure: The BMP280 can measure the pressure of the air with an accuracy of ±1.0 hPa. This information can be used to monitor the weather conditions and identify any potential risks to the cattle.

The data from the BMP280 can be used to monitor the environment in which cattle are kept and identify any potential health risks. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

The BMP280 is attached to the back of the cattle with adhesive tape. The sensor is connected to a data logger that records the environmental data in real time.

 

The data logger can be programmed to identify different environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, low humidity, and high pressure. The data logger can then output the data to a computer or mobile device for analysis.

 

The analysis of the data can be used to monitor the environment around the cattle and identify any potential health risks. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

For example, if the data shows that the temperature is too high, this could be a sign of heat stress. The farmer can then take steps to cool the cattle down, such as providing them with shade and water.

The use of the BMP280 to monitor the environmental conditions around cattle is a valuable tool for animal health monitoring. It is a non-invasive and accurate method that can be used to monitor the environment in real time. This information can be used to improve herd management and animal welfare.

Short Explanation of Code:

The provided code is written for an ESP32 microcontroller using the Arduino framework. It interfaces with various sensors like the MPU9250 (Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Magnetometer), BMP280 (Barometric Pressure and Temperature Sensor), and ADXL345 (Accelerometer). It also uses the MQTT protocol to communicate with an MQTT broker and publish sensor data.

MQTT Protocol:

MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight messaging protocol commonly used in IoT (Internet of Things) applications. It's designed for efficient communication between devices with minimal overhead. MQTT uses a publish-subscribe model, where devices (clients) publish messages to topics, and other devices (subscribers) can receive these messages by subscribing to the relevant topics.

In the provided code, the MQTT protocol is used to publish sensor data to specific topics on an MQTT broker.

Code Explanation:

Importing Libraries: The code begins by importing necessary libraries such as those for the sensors, WiFi communication, Wire (I2C communication), and the PubSubClient library for MQTT communication.

WiFi Configuration: The ESP32 connects to a WiFi network using the provided SSID and password. It checks for a successful connection and handles reconnection if necessary.

MQTT Configuration: The MQTT broker's server, port, and authentication credentials (username and password) are defined. The client is initialized using the WiFi client and configured to connect to the broker.

Sensor Initialization: The code initializes the MPU9250, BMP280, and ADXL345 sensors. It sets various sensor settings and displays sensor details using the provided sensor libraries.

MQTT Reconnection Function: The reconnect function ensures that the MQTT client stays connected to the broker. It attempts to connect to the broker, subscribes to a topic, and handles reconnection if necessary.

 

Sensor Data Collection: Inside the loop function, sensor data is collected from the sensors, including accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, temperature, and pressure.

MQTT Data Publishing: The collected sensor data is formatted into payloads and published to specific MQTT topics. For example, acceleration data might be published under the topic "ACCE," gyro data under "GYRO," etc. The client.publish function is used to send data to the MQTT broker.

Rumination Detection: The code includes a section for detecting rumination (cattle chewing cud) based on accelerometer data. If the accelerometer magnitude exceeds a threshold, the code tracks rumination time and counts. It publishes rumination data to an MQTT topic.

Exhale Detection: The code also includes a section for detecting respiration rate based on a flex sensor. When an exhale is detected based on the flex sensor reading, the code calculates the respiration rate and publishes it to an MQTT topic.

Usage of MQTT:

Initialization: In the setup function, the MQTT client is initialized and connected to the broker using the reconnect function.

Data Publishing: In the loop function, sensor data is collected and published to MQTT topics. Each set of sensor data is formatted into a payload string, and the client.publish function sends this payload to the respective MQTT topic.

Handling Reconnection: The reconnect function ensures that the client remains connected to the broker. It uses a while loop to attempt reconnection until successful.

Callback Function: Although not fully implemented in this code, MQTT clients often include a callback function (callback in this code) to handle incoming messages from subscribed topics. This function would be triggered when the client receives a message on a subscribed topic.

Overall, the code collects data from various sensors and uses the MQTT protocol to publish this data to specific topics on an MQTT broker. This data can then be received and processed by other devices that are subscribed to these topics.

IOT Protocol Details:

MQTT stands for "Message Queuing Telemetry Transport," and it's a lightweight messaging protocol designed for communication between devices in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and other low-bandwidth, high-latency, or unreliable networks. It was originally developed by IBM in the late 1990s but has gained widespread adoption due to its efficiency and suitability for constrained environments.

MQTT operates on a publish-subscribe model, where devices can publish messages to specific topics, and other devices (subscribers) can subscribe to those topics to receive messages. This decoupling of publishers and subscribers allows for efficient and flexible communication patterns.

Here's how it works:

Publishers: Devices that have data to share publish messages to specific topics. Topics are strings that categorize or label the messages, forming a hierarchical structure. For example, a temperature sensor in a room might publish data to the topic "home/living_room/temperature."

 

Subscribers: Devices or applications interested in receiving certain types of data or updates subscribe to specific topics. Subscribers receive messages from the topics they are subscribed to.

Broker: The MQTT broker is a server that acts as an intermediary between publishers and subscribers. It receives published messages and forwards them to the appropriate subscribers based on their topic subscriptions.

Quality of Service (QoS):

MQTT supports different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) for message delivery, allowing publishers and subscribers to control the reliability and delivery guarantees of messages:

QoS 0 (At most once): This level provides the least reliability. Messages are delivered once, and no confirmation or acknowledgment is sent back to the sender. There is a possibility of message loss.

QoS 1 (At least once): This level ensures that messages are delivered at least once. The publisher receives an acknowledgment (PUBACK) from the broker after the message is successfully delivered. If no acknowledgment is received, the publisher will resend the message.

QoS 2 (Exactly once): This is the highest level of reliability. Messages are guaranteed to be delivered exactly once by using a two-step handshake process. The publisher and broker engage in a series of acknowledgments and retransmissions to ensure the message is successfully delivered only once.

The choice of QoS level depends on the specific use case and the importance of message reliability. For example, critical data might require QoS 2 to ensure no duplication or loss, while less critical data could use QoS 0 for simplicity and reduced overhead.

In summary, MQTT is a messaging protocol that operates on a publish-subscribe model, with topics for message categorization, and it provides different levels of Quality of Service for controlling message reliability and delivery guarantees.


* For more details of MQTT use the following link
https://www.hivemq.com/mqtt/mqtt-protocol/

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